Assignment Six, critical essay reworked

Essay re-worked after tutor comments (minor changes suggested and implemented)

An examination of the gendered approach to ‘Gaze’

Again, my tutor has suggested to consider how this work might affect my future practice, I think I have covered that in my summary of the course here

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Assignment Five reworked.

I’ve said all I want to say about PowerPoint presentations. My tutor suggested some changes to the presentation. I have decided to stop all the animations and transitions and make it a static presentation. I have written up my text (it was in manuscript format in my note book – so at least it will be readable now, whether it will, be comprehensible will be for others to decide

Assignment five 2 reworked

The link the original is here

 

The Feminine Sublime

“To investigate the feminine sublime is not to embark upon a search for an autonomous female voice, realm of experience or language, although these categories may be valuable as a dimension of the strategic interventions of feminist practice. What is specifically feminine about the feminine sublime is not an assertion of innate sexual difference, but a radical rearticulation of the role gender plays in producing the history of discourse on the sublime and the formulation of an alternative position with respect to excess and the possibilities of its figuration.” The introductory sentences to Barbara Claire Freeman’s short essay on ‘The Feminine Sublime’ 1995.

These two sentences provided me with the twin insights into both the sublime and another aspect of feminism that I hadn’t expected but which illuminated so much of what I have been thinking about for some time. My own search into the meaning of the sublime has been helped by both the research and by the conversations I continue to have with fellow students on a regular basis. These images here are what I have called ‘pretty pictures’; lacking in substance and perspective, the sole intent was to ‘capture’ a sense of the scape of the land that provided an awesome response; controlling the media – film emulsion through development and then printing,  exposure – via the zone system, composition etc etc and then sales via exhibitions and commissions. In the digital era a negative might take a week to prepare before printing. Most of the images were captured on film, the whole process now feels like an act of virile expressionism – I certainly had to be fit enough to carry the ‘kit’ up some of these slopes and compose/wait for the light to adhere to certain constraints. I am still questioning the purpose of it all.

The sublime is of course a construct, “the awful, the lofty and the splendid” as Kant (1) described the three types of sublimity, but these constructs, including that of The Creator are all gendered perspectives – the notion of a landscape photographer/artist/painter is Male – see http://www.stathatos.net/pages/conditional_presence.html, what place is there for a Female? Most if not all the texts on the sublime are from that singular viewpoint, Longinus, Burke, Kant &c. Contemporary Sublime seems also to offer that same ‘maleness’ the Dusseldorf school being pre-eminent in supplying text after text of the awestruck male, Struth, Epstein, Burtynsky et al all striving to implant that same emotive response to the sublime (some maybe just by the size of their imagery leave alone what it is they are imaging).

Motionless and sterile, these images were all created without a sense of purpose other than demonstration of craft, clearly set in the mould of ‘modernists’ whose credo was set two generations ago. It is the image of one who wanted to express the biggest and the best, a singularly gendered stance that rejects an ‘other’. Freeman doesn’t suggest an answer but a discourse, and like Berger (Ways of Seeing) a generation earlier, doesn’t offer an answer. Berger’s stance is of course correct – what self respecting feminist would accept a solution from the ‘other’? Freeman offers a typical feminist response; discourse and engagement rather than hegemony and brute force.

(1) Introductory essay by Simon Morley ‘The Sublime’ pub’ Whitechapel Gallery 2010

Feminist artist Judy Chicago

I am a particular admirer of Judy Chicago – I went to an exhibition ‘study day‘ a while back and was moved by the work. And in this video she describes, amongst other things, the risks she took to challenge the prevailing hegemony through the late 1960’s and 1970’s. I have had many discussions, particularly with fellow students on the subject of beauty and I look forward to having more, but Chicago’s use of beauty and colour in the discourse around the position of women in art and society is a very interesting tactic, there is no doubt in my mind that a lot of her work is very beautiful, highly crafted and very subversive.

The Gaze

The more I look the less I see; perhaps this is the nature of research? The more I see the more it reveals of the depth there is in the subject that I have yet to illuminate. The notion of feminism as an idea expressed though art, and maybe more specifically through a visual art medium has more hurdles, pot-holes and potential cul-de-sacs than any other subject I have considered. And these impediments in the flow of travel of knowledge have many roots, my own gender of course will provide a crucial limitation. The level of conversation entered into by women into this subject has been surprisingly (and to my mind, woefully so) limited. I have tried to engage with over a hundred women, all of whom I thought might have something to say on the subject of feminism, let alone feminist art and have had very few conversations.

The Way Home  reprinted by kind permission of the artist Tom Hunter

The Way Home
reprinted by kind permission of the artist Tom Hunter

One area with very little engagement was the area of ‘Gaze’. Berger covers it in ‘Ways of Seeing’ by writing “Men look at women. Women watch themselves being looked at.” suggesting that from the Renaissance women have been portrayed as idealised visions, something that Laura Mulvey discusses further in ‘Visual pleasure and narrative cinema’. However I found very little on the concept of the female gaze. Male gaze, in a patriarchal society, has had a privileged position, but the  idea of it’s counterpart in women seemed only to present itself, to any great extent, in lesbian texts – that of Tee Corinne for example and others – which was also concerned with the female form. I was therefore interested to discover Karolin Klüppel whose work seems to address this notion head on.

Ontario, reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

Ontario, reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

Hunter, in his work, has often re-presented what are deemed to ‘high-art’ paintings and situated them amongst the ‘people’, those of the Hackney area where he lives, the strip clubs, pubs and has suggested that for many men -those that do not go to galleries or have access to the ready cash to commission works of art for ‘private viewing’ – the only way to see a woman, to gaze at a women, is to frequent these places. The ‘places’ of course continue to perpetuate the to position of women as subjects of Male gaze (and more),  Klüppel replaces the woman with the man and flips the objectifier to the object.

Pirus: reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

Pirus: reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

Klüppel doesn’t flinch with the notion of female gaze “…also another aspect, taking place outside oft the visual dimension of her work: contrary to the traditional depiction of the female nude, which was produced in the history of art mostly by the male artist, and is mainly the male gaze exposed the viewer, stands in this case behind this sexualized male image as a creator a woman.” from her website.

Leda, Paul Delvaux - Tate

Leda, Paul Delvaux – Tate

Arlet: reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

Arlet: reprinted by the kind permission of the artist Karolin Klüppel

These are objects presented as much for the delight of the viewer as ever Cranach’s images of ‘Eve’ disporting her genitalia for the onanistic pleasure of it’s commissioner. We are invited to consider these as objects of pleasure (the series was I think part of her final years project of her degree), I think the irony works in a different way to Hunter’s because of the ‘flipped’ roles, as she says on the press release for the work: “.. Her photographs do not only question the familiar structures of perception and stereotypes, but also succeeds an ironic revaluation and updating of certain motifs, which are transported into the present and with the distance to tradition she captures, in an amusing manner, the nature of the human condition of the presence.

In 2013 she was awarded a residency in India and discovered a remote community where the society is structured matrilineally and has produced a body of work called ‘Mädchenland’ The artist has decided to provide me some text to underpin that work which I suspect could well be an interesting context to support it, I am looking forward to that.